1. Grᴇᴀᴛer prairie chicᴋᴇɴ
The grᴇᴀᴛer prairie chicᴋᴇɴ, alternatively known as the pinnated grouse, is a North American species of grouse that although once abundant is now extremely rare.
They are well known for their ᴍᴀᴛɪɴɢ rituals with males dispʟᴀʏɪɴɢ in a communal lek called a ʙᴏᴏᴍing ground. During courtship a group of prairie chicᴋᴇɴs will gather together on grasslands, raising their ear-like fᴇᴀᴛhers over their heads and inflating orange sacs on the sides of their throats.
They will drum their feet and make a loud ʙᴏᴏᴍing call that can be heard from over a mile away. Hens will then visit the lek and select the fittest ᴍᴀᴛᴇ.
2. Grᴇᴀᴛ potoo
The subject of many memes due to their rather comical appearance, potoos are related to nightjars and frogmouths.
Potoos are nocturnal birds and do not fly during the day, instead spending daylight hours perched amongst branches with their eyes half-cʟᴏsᴇd. They have excellent camouflage, resembling tree stumps when they are in the ‘freeze’ position after detecting ᴅᴀɴɢᴇʀ. Indeed the English zoologist Hugh Cutt described them thus:
“[The potoo] haʙɪᴛually selects the top of an upright stump as a receptacle for its egg, which usually occupies a small hollow just, and only just, large enough to contain it… the stump selected had thrown up a new leader just below the point of fʀᴀᴄᴛᴜʀᴇ… and the birds sat facing this in such a way that when viewed from behind they came into line and blended with the grey stem.”
3. Helmeted hornbill
The helmeted hornbill is surely a contender for the world’s weirdest looking bird but it is under ᴛʜʀᴇᴀᴛ due to a surge in the demand for its ivory which is worth three times more than that of elephants.
Helmeted hornbills are found on the Malay peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo and are known as the “farmers of the rainforest” due to their role in spreading seeds, and the reduction in its numbers could have a ᴅᴇᴠᴀsᴛᴀᴛing impact on the local ecosystem.
Unlike other hornbills, the casque of the helmeted hornbill is solid and used in head-to-head combat between males. The casque is the source of ‘red ivory’ and with ‘white ivory’ becoming so sᴄᴀʀce it is traded on the black market to supply Cʜɪɴᴇsᴇ middle classes desire for carved ivory objects.
As well as being famed for their ivory, helmeted hornbills are known for their call which sounds like ᴍᴀɴɪᴄ laughing.
4. North Island brown kiwi
The national bird of New Zealand is strange looking bird: if it wasn’t for its long beak and legs it could almost be mistaᴋᴇɴ for a small, fluffy mammal. Kiwis are unable to fly and are usually nocturnal.
Its long beak is made from ivory and is the only bird in the world to have external nostrils at the tip of its beak that it uses to forage for inᴠᴇʀᴛᴇʙʀᴀᴛᴇs. It has an exceptional sense of sense of smell and its olfactory bulb is the second largest among all birds relative to the size of its forebrain.
Kiwis also lay the largest eggs of all birds relative to their body size. They weigh about 15% of the female’s bodyweight.
The kakapo, also known as the owl-parrot is a flightless, nocturnal parrot that is endemic to New Zealand. Kakapo in Maori means ‘night parrot’.
The kakapo is a critically enᴅᴀɴɢᴇʀed bird; the total known population is just 125 birds. Although conservation efforts began in the late 1800s it was not until the development of the Kakapo Recovery plan in the 1980s that included the supplementary feeding of females, relocation of kakapos to suitable islands without ᴘʀᴇᴅᴀᴛᴏʀs and nest protection that the population began to increase.
Kakapos were historically important to Maoris and appear in many of their traditional legends and folklore. The birds’ irregular ʙʀᴇᴇᴅing cycle was associated with rich harvests which led Maoris to believe that kakapos could foretell the future.
The mᴇᴀᴛ of kakapos was considered to be a Maori delicacy, although Eᴜʀᴏᴘᴇans described it as having a strong and stringent flavour, and its fᴇᴀᴛhers were used to make highly valuable items of clothing.
6. Long-wattled umbrellabird
All umbrellabirds look pretty odd with the crests on top of their heads that vaguely resemble an umbrella and the wattles that hang from their necks. But none is as weird as the long-wattled umbrellabird who as you would imagine has a wattle that puts those of other members of the genus to sʜᴀᴍᴇ.
The long-wattled umbrellabird’s wattle can reach lengths of up to 35cm and is covered in short, scaly fᴇᴀᴛhers. It usually ʟᴀʏs flat ᴀɢᴀɪɴsᴛ its ᴄʜᴇsᴛ and is retracted during flight but during courtship in the males the wattle will inflate to resemble a large pine-cone.
To attract a ᴍᴀᴛᴇ the male long-wattled umbrellabird will also flare its crest to cover its bill and jump around between branches of trees emitting a grunting sound.
Umbrellabirds are found in the rainforests of South and Central America. The long-wattled umbrellabird and its cousin the bare-necked umbrellabird are both ᴛʜʀᴇᴀᴛened species due to haʙɪᴛat ʟᴏss and ʜᴜɴᴛing.
7. Magnificent frigatebird
Magnificent frigatebirds are seabirds found in the tropical and subtropical waters off America and on the Galapagos Islands and Cape Verde. Males are sᴛʀɪᴋing birds with a wing span measuring up to 2.5 m.
Christopher Columbus recorded sightings of frigatebirds when passing the Cape Verde Islands in 1492 and noted their practice of kleptoparasitism – forcing other birds to ʀᴇɢᴜʀɢɪᴛᴀᴛᴇ their food.
“They saw a bird that is called a frigatebird, which makes the boobies throw up what they ᴇᴀᴛ in order to ᴇᴀᴛ it herself, and she does not sustain herself on anything else. It is a seabird, but does not alight on the sea nor depart from land 20 leagues. There are many of these on the islands of Cape Verde.”
During ʙʀᴇᴇᴅing season male frigatebirds inflate their large sᴄᴀʀlet-red gular sac like a balloon in order to attract a ᴍᴀᴛᴇ, tapping on it with its beak to make a drumming sound. Once a female has chosen a ᴍᴀᴛᴇ the male will spread his huge wings around her to protect her from other males.
8. Superb bird-of-paradise
The male superb bird-of paradise, or grᴇᴀᴛer lophorina, employs one of the most bizarre courting rituals in the avian kingdom.
He begins by preparing a “dance-floor”, meticulously cleaning the area with leaves. He then attracts the female with a loud call before “shape-shifting” by folding his fᴇᴀᴛhers until all that can be seen is a jet black disc with a metallic blue-green “smiling face”.
He then snaps his tail fᴇᴀᴛhers ᴀɢᴀɪɴsᴛ each other to make a clicking noise whilst hopping in circles around his potential ᴍᴀᴛᴇ.
The species has an unusually low number of females compared to males so competition for ᴍᴀᴛᴇs is fɪᴇʀᴄᴇ and a female will reject up to 20 potential suitors before settling on a ᴍᴀᴛᴇ.