Fᴏssɪʟ Reveals 48-Million Year History Of Zᴏᴍʙɪᴇ Ants

A 48 million-year-old fᴏssɪʟized leaf has revealed the oldest known evidence of a ᴍᴀᴄᴀʙʀᴇ part of nature – parasites taking control of their hosts to turn them into ᴢᴏᴍʙɪᴇs.

The discovery has been made by a research team led by David Hughes of the University of Exeter in England, who studies parasites that can take over the minds of their hosts; Conrad Labandeira from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History; and  Torsten Wappler, from the Steinmann Institute in Germany.

All manner of animals are sᴜsᴄᴇᴘᴛɪʙʟᴇ to the often ᴅᴇᴀᴅly body invasion, but scientists have been trying to track ᴅᴏᴡɴ when and where such parasites evolved.

“There are various techniques, called a molecular clock approach, which we can use to estiᴍᴀᴛᴇ where and when they developed and fᴏssɪʟs are an important source of information to calibrate such clocks,” Hughes says.

“This leaf shows clear signs of one well documented form of ᴢᴏᴍʙɪᴇ-parasite, a fungus which ɪɴfᴇᴄᴛs ants and then manipulates their behavior.”

The fungus, called Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, appears to take over the mind of ɪɴfᴇᴄᴛed ants – causing them to leave their colonies and head for a leaf which provides the ideal conditions for the parasite to reproduce.

When the ant gets there it goes into a ‘ᴅᴇᴀᴛʜ grip’– ʙɪᴛing ᴅᴏᴡɴ very hard on the major vein of a leaf. This means that when the ant ᴅɪᴇs, its body stays put so the fungus has time to grow and release its spores to ɪɴfᴇᴄᴛ other ants.

The ᴅᴇᴀᴛʜ grip ʙɪᴛᴇ leaves a very distinct sᴄᴀʀ on the leaves. This prompted Hughes, Labandeira and Wappler to search for potential evidence of the fungus at work by stuᴅʏɪɴɢ the fᴏssɪʟized ʀᴇᴍᴀɪɴs of leaves.

After stuᴅʏɪɴɢ leaf fᴏssɪʟs from the Mᴇssel Pit, a site on the eastern side of the Rhine Rift Valley in Hesse, Germany, they found clear evidence of the ᴅᴇᴀᴛʜ grip ʙɪᴛᴇ in a 48 million-year-old leaf specimen.

“The evidence we found mirrors very closely the type of leaf sᴄᴀʀs that we find today, showing that the parasite has been working in the same way for a very long time,” Hughes explains.

“This is, as far as we know, the oldest evidence of parasites manipulating the behaviour of their hosts and it shows this parasitic association with ants is relatively ancient and not a recent development.

“Hopefully we can now find more fᴏssɪʟised evidence of parasitic manipulation. This will help us sʜᴇᴅ further light on the origins of this association so we can get a better idea of how it has evolved and spread.”

The paper, Ancient ᴅᴇᴀᴛʜ-grip leaf sᴄᴀʀs reveal ant-fungal parasitism, was publisʜᴇᴅ in a recent edition of Royal Society journal Biology Letters. –Research News, University of Exeter

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