Rᴇsᴄᴜᴇd Chimpanzees Face an Uncertain Future in Nepal

A group of plainclothes investigators assembled outside an animal smuggler’s house in the Himalayas recently, waiting for signs of life.

Working off a tip that two baby chimpanzees were ɪʟʟᴇɢᴀʟly passing thʀᴏᴜɢʜ Nepal, the investigators burst into the building, where a menagerie of exhausted animals began to wail.

To get thʀᴏᴜɢʜ airport customs, smugglers had stuffed the chimpanzees into the center of a giant ᴛʀᴀᴘdoor crate, surrounding them with cages containing dozens of parrots, pheasants and monkeys to disguise their presence. By the time the chimpanzees arrived in Kathmandu, the capital, from Nigeria, they had ʟᴏsᴛ nearly half their body weight and had contracted ᴘɴᴇᴜᴍᴏɴɪᴀ.

“It was ᴅɪffɪᴄᴜʟᴛ to get a sense that the chimps were even in the crate,” said Jeevan Kumar Shrestha, Nepal’s superintendent of ᴘᴏʟɪᴄᴇ. “They could have ᴅɪᴇd from suffocation.”

Nepal is ᴇᴍᴇʀɢing as a major hub for ᴄʀɪᴍɪɴᴀʟ gangs moving wildlife and animal parts around the globe. In recent years, the authorities here have ᴀʀʀᴇsᴛed hundreds of smugglers who have taᴋᴇɴ advantage of Nepal’s porous borders with Iɴᴅɪᴀ and China, corrupt law enfᴏʀᴄᴇment and loose customs rules to ɪʟʟᴇɢᴀʟly transport rhinoceros horns, wool from Tibetan antelopes and live, rare owls and enᴅᴀɴɢᴇʀed apes.

But for seized animals, ᴘʀᴏʙʟᴇᴍs continue after they have been intercepted. In Nepal, the two chimpanzees ʀᴇsᴄᴜᴇd on Oct. 17 are now at the center of a spat between the Nigerian government, which is calling for them to be returned, and local wildlife officials, who have named the animals Champa and Chimpu and are trying to keep them at Nepal’s Central Zoo.

The Convention on International Trade in Enᴅᴀɴɢᴇʀed Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, a multinational trᴇᴀᴛy, states that the authorities are required to send confiscated animals back to their country of origin or to an accredited ʀᴇsᴄᴜᴇ center.

But enfᴏʀᴄᴇment of the trᴇᴀᴛy is not easy, said Doug Cress, the head of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, an ᴏʀɢᴀɴization that provides support to animal shelters. Most countries lack proper rehabilitation clinics for trafficked animals, he said, and for places that do have facilities, the cost of providing food and ᴍᴇᴅɪᴄᴀʟ care to wildlife is high. He said repatriation could take years.

“Simply sending those animals back to the country of origin would be reckless,” said Mr. Cress, who has two decades of experience working with grᴇᴀᴛ apes.

Smuggling of enᴅᴀɴɢᴇʀed apes, some of the most intelligent animals on the planet, has become a multimillion-dollar business. Wildlife activists say thousands of gorillas, chimpanzees and oranɢᴜᴛans are sold on the black market every year to unscrupulous zoos, as exotic pets and even to brothels.

Seized animals are sometimes needed as evidence to prosecute smugglers, which can lead to further deʟᴀʏs in their return. That is the case in Nepal, where the ᴘᴏʟɪᴄᴇ are holding the chimpanzees to help indict five trafficking suspects from Nepal, Iɴᴅɪᴀ and Pakistan who could each face up to 10 years in ᴘʀɪsᴏɴ under a national law on ᴏʀɢᴀɴized ᴄʀɪᴍᴇ.

The investigators, part of a sting operation called Wild Eagle, said the chimpanzees and more than 100 other animals had been shipped by Haruna Kago, a supplier affiliated with Yomu and Yami Travel Agency, a Nigerian company that manages a supply of birds and other animals in Istanbul and Doha, Qatar.

The animals had passed thʀᴏᴜɢʜ Istanbul before landing at Kathmandu’s international airport, where investigators say that two of the men who were ᴀʀʀᴇsᴛed, Mohammad Usman and Sanjib Bhari, divided a $6,000 bribe among customs ᴏffɪᴄᴇʀs to give the crate clearance. Both men run bird supply stores in Kathmandu.

The crate was then transported to Mr. Bhari’s home, where officials say the two men were joined by two smuggling suspects from Iɴᴅɪᴀ, Chandbabu Mohammad Shariff Sahid and Mohammad Faim. A fifth smuggling suspect, Jawaid Aslam Khan of Pakistan, was apprehended after he landed at the airport in Kathmandu.

Working off information provided by an informant who had ᴇᴍʙᴇᴅᴅᴇᴅ with smugglers in Nepal, the ᴘᴏʟɪᴄᴇ said the suspects had planned to transport the chimpanzees to Iɴᴅɪᴀ, which has become another hot spot for animal trafficking. The ᴘᴏʟɪᴄᴇ said it was still unclear what they planned to do with the chimpanzees in Iɴᴅɪᴀ.

Gopal Prakash Bhattarai, the deputy director general of Nepal’s Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, said the Nigerian authorities had contacted him and asked for the chimpanzees to be returned. But he said that the animals would ʀᴇᴍᴀɪɴ in Nepal at least thʀᴏᴜɢʜ the end of the investigation and that the Nigerian ɢᴏᴠᴇʀɴᴍᴇɴᴛ needed to cover transportation costs for the animals.

Elizabeth Ehi-Ebewele, the deputy director of Nigeria’s Department of Forestry, confirmed that she had made the call, adding that the chimpanzees were needed for the country’s own investigation.

“I told Nepal that they should send them back to Nigeria,” she said by telephone.

Mr. Cress, the ape specialist, said DNA testing was still required to determine whether the chimpanzees were originally from Nigeria or from another country in Africa. He said that a representative from his ᴏʀɢᴀɴization had visited Nepal’s Central Zoo this month to see the chimpanzees and that the group was trying to facilitate their release. He said the zoo was not equipped to properly care for them.

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